Saturday, March 14, 2020

Rhodium Facts - Periodic Table of the Elements

Rhodium Facts - Periodic Table of the Elements Rhodium  Basic Facts Atomic Number: 45 Symbol: Rh Atomic Weight: 102.9055 Discovery: William Wollaston 1803-1804 (England) Electron Configuration: [Kr] 5s1 4d8 Word Origin: Greek rhodon rose. Rhodium salts yield a rosy-colored solution. Properties: Rhodium metal is silvery-white. When exposed to red heat, the metal slowly changes in air to the sesquioxide. At higher temperatures it converts back to its elemental form. Rhodium has a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. The melting point of rhodium is 1966 /-3 °C, boiling point 3727 /-100 °C, specific gravity 12.41 (20 °C), with a valence of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Uses: One major use of rhodium is as an alloying agent to harden platinum and palladium. Because it has a low electrical resistance, rhodium is useful as an electrical contact material. Rhodium has a low and stable contact resistance and is highly resistant to corrosion. Plated rhodium is very hard and has a high reflectance, which makes it useful for optical instruments and jewelry. Rhodium is also used as a catalyst in certain reactions. Sources: Rhodium occurs with other platinum metals in river sands in the Urals and in North and South America. It is found in the copper-nickel sulfide ores of the Sudbury, Ontario region. Element Classification: Transition Metal Rhodium Physical Data Density (g/cc): 12.41 Melting Point (K): 2239 Boiling Point (K): 4000 Appearance: silvery-white, hard metal Atomic Radius (pm): 134 Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 8.3 Covalent Radius (pm): 125 Ionic Radius: 68 (3e) Specific Heat (20 °C J/g mol): 0.244 Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 21.8 Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 494 Pauling Negativity Number: 2.28 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 719.5 Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 Lattice Structure: Face-Centered Cubic Lattice Constant (Ã…): 3.800 References: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Langes Handbook of Chemistry (1952), CRC Handbook of Chemistry Physics (18th Ed.) Return to the Periodic Table Chemistry Encyclopedia

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Pepperdine University Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Pepperdine University - Case Study Example The MSOD program administrator was responsible for marketing and recruiting new students, managing the delivery logistics of the off-site program, managing the students’ registration and financial relationships with the university and maintaining relationships with the MSOD alumni (Otis,1993). The proposal is to change the job design of the MSOD program administrator. The proposal suggested that he continue to perform all the current duties of the position and in addition provide administrative support to two PKE classes from their initial class to graduation. Moreover, he would receive additional compensation for the title change and increased responsibilities. The proposed change should occur to improve efficiencies, to recognize the MSOD program Administrator’s outstanding productivity and to cut cost at the university level. In conclusion, Pepperdine University will benefit from the proposal to change the job design of the program administrator’s staff. The proposed change will also reduce the work load of the job position and enhance work productivity and efficiency. The proposed change will also ensure that tasks are shared between various departments to ensure faster delivery and work

Monday, February 10, 2020

Relationship Between Independent and Supplementary Prescribing Essay

Relationship Between Independent and Supplementary Prescribing - Essay Example This further meant they had to gain supplementary expertise and skills in the diverse fields of medicine. This novel form of prescribing with extended medical conditions, as well as, patients with extended healthcare requirements benefited patients (Courtenay & Griffiths 2004, 3). Independent and supplementary prescribers have been bestowed with the legal authority of prescribing any medicine regardless of whether they are licensed or not. Inconsequential restrictions are only applicable concerning the prescription of prohibited drugs. Prescribing rights for nurses appear similar to that of doctors, and for efficiency; their prescription ought to be dependable on the legal outline in relation to nurse prescribing (Courtenay & Griffiths 2004, 3). The prescribing ought to be acceptable to the health professions, as well as, the patients. Over some time, the disparities between the two methods of prescribing have been explored accordingly with regard to patient directions and overly reg arding the whole process. In supplementary prescribing, a doctor or a dentist has to make a diagnosis in the first place since they are the independent prescribers. This implies that independent prescribing involves making diagnosis or assessments on patients, therefore, presenting a plan that the patient utilizes in obtaining prescription (Adair 2011, 1). In circumstances, where patients are diagnosed, and supervised by nurses intricacies have developed on whether to allow doctors, to carry out additional diagnosis prior to, the commencement of supplementary prescribing. Supplementary prescribing comprises an intentional affiliation among independent prescribers and supplementary prescriber (BMA 2006). The independent prescribing health professionals are either the doctor or the dentist while the supplementary prescribing professionals ought to be trained nurse or pharmacist (Baird 2005, 51). Self-governing nurse prescribers comprise of district nurses who bear the liberty to presc ribe through Nurse Prescribers Formulary (NPF). These nurses are professionally accountable for any medical undertaking although the employer is accountable for any actions carried out by his or her nurses. Independent prescribing is often faced with legal restrictions concerning certain clinical conditions. However, these restrictions are not applicable to supplementary prescribing. This implies that supplementary prescribing has the capacity to prescribe any GSL and P medications, appliances, provisions as well as additional borderline components approved by the committee on these components (Courtenay & Griffiths 2010, 3). Supplementary prescribing has the capacity to prescribe all POMs, Off-label medications as well as black triangle medications. Supplementary prescribing may prescribe unlicensed drugs in instances of clinical trials for individuals may have trail certificates (Courtenay & Griffiths 2004, 3). Supplementary prescribing is best suited for the management of chronic illness as well as other long-term health requirements. This is because the doctors make necessary diagnosis and develop a sound plan for administering medication. The plan can be followed comfortably through supplementary prescribing that offers the necessary prescription for the condition. Unlike supplementary prescribing, independent prescribing can only offer services to patients with short-term medical requirements where doctors have little contact

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Systems Maintenance Essay Example for Free

Systems Maintenance Essay Onsite help desk will be located at the head Office. It will provide help desk support to all of their branches via a toll-free number and/or website. When a problem has occurred at a franchisee, the franchisee staff needs to log a call through to their helpdesk over phone or website. The help desk will try to troubleshoot over phone first and if that does not fix the problem, subsequently they will organize for a technician to attend ASAP. In addition to that there will a full time technician at the web server location at the head office providing 247 support. User support will be provided in number of methods, such as online documentation and troubleshooting, a help desk, technical support, end user satisfaction, resolving service request quickly and seamlessly, increase productivities, online document, online enquiry facilities, online transaction facilities and others. A. User Documentation a. User guide The user guide would feature all the roles of the system users and the various functionalities they possess for the successful operation and use of the system. A business process-oriented manual The business process oriented model would collate all the business processes that the equipment tracking system holds and ensures rightful use of them for exploiting the system. c. Security policies for the equipment tracking system The security issues are the primary issues which an organization must take care to protect their data which is king to any organization. In particular as the system implements payment system, security is very much required as that would ensure safe communication with financial information. The following are the identified issues and their correct implementation process: 1. Login/Access Issues: Every customer would be asked to sign up with the company before any services are provided. That would ensure safety of transactions made with the company. It could be similar to Pay Pal, where a person can get verified by giving his Credit card number. 2. Back up: Periodic backups can be taken of the database in magnetic tapes so that data remains safe and is not lost. The saved data also ensures continuity of business and good recoverability options. 3. Antivirus software: The system needs to be protected against all vulnerabilities and threats like viruses. Good anti-virus software would ensure that the system is well protected and operations will not halt for any external threat. 4. Access control: This ensures that everyone is not allowed to access all information and all business functions. Access control is a mechanism which creates views for every type of user. Views are used for giving a user a specific access area outside which nothing is available. Such as an accounts officer should not be able to view reports of the profits in the business which is meant for the owners and higher management. B. Evaluation 1. Critical Appraisal The database designed is a fully automated system for the equipment tracking system. It follows all the CRUD properties and ensure better handling the users and the roles. 2. Strengths of each stage All information is stored and retrieved in the RDBMS tool created for the system. 3. Weaknesses of each stage The cost of maintaining the system is a little overhead for the organization. The backups and support issues may pose a problem. C. Conclusion The equipment tracking system’s fundamental goal was to manage the inventory and ascertain at any point of time the availability of the equipments to be allocated to departments. Another intention is to check the various calculations of the firm based on their earnings and profit in the long run. Content should be maintained and produced for scan-ability. Engineering principles were a necessity in the complexity/diversity surrounding online activity. Legal and ethical issues are vital to security conscious users. Further work can be in the form of a web based system to spread its operation and functionality over the internet to increase its usability, acceptance, workability and many other factors. The systems development model based on the web technologies would make sure that the complete supply chain of the business is managed thoroughly by the system and would take care of the process of getting the products to their warehouse to ultimately selling to the customers (Laudon, 2003). Online order tracking options can be implemented to reinforce visual symbols such as â€Å"Best Buys†, â€Å"Add to Basket† and instructions to â€Å"proceed to Basket and Checkout† which are reminders of physical store environments, providing familiarity to customers. (Weick, 2001). References / Bibliography Barry Mawer (2000). Systems Maintenance, vol 32, pp 12. Booch, Grady (2003). Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Essay --

Educational Diagnosis Predisposing factors. Pregnant women are usually motivated to seek and continue healthy habits. Although it has been seen that they usually decrease their alcohol consumption right after they become aware of their condition, young women between the their teenage and young adult years have more predisposition to have experienced binge drinking before pregnancy and this makes them more likely to engage in this habit even after they have recognized that they are pregnant.. (Tsai, Floyd, & Bertrand, 2007; Floyd , Decoufle , & Hungeford, 1999; Tough, Tofflemire, Clarke, & Newbum-Cook, 2006) Enabling factors. Health care workers face particular barriers similar to those observed during screening, this is having a truthful report, women with alcohol dependence might underreport their prenatal consumption of alcohol, due to several reasons, that can include fear of retaliation, different believes that small amounts are not harmful to the fetus, embarrassment or even denial of their condition.35 Many studies have shown positive results in the decrease of alcohol consumption after implementation of brief interventions and/ or motivational interviewing with pregnant women. (Handmaker & Wilbourne, 2001) Reinforsing factors. O’ Connor and Whaley’s study observed that women that receive brief interventions are five times more likely to report abstinence after a brief intervention and women who were heavy drinkers have better outcomes with their babies after delivery. (O’Connor & Whaley, 2007) Although these interventions have demonstrated benefits in the new born, long-term abstinence requires extensive case management and pharmacological intervention, the use of brief interventions during pregnancy can translate in to ch... ...ging in support group activities such as physical activities, counseling, motivational speech. The educational information will be supported with appropriate educational materials, prenatal care supplies, and a health record card. All materials will be provided to each clinic/center. Health and nutrition education classes take place twice monthly. Organized and scheduled daily activities will help the participants to engage to participate in positive and nurturing environment. The participant will receive a diploma of completion in a celebratory ceremony at the end of the 12 weeks. The program includes CHW’s home visits to follow up on alcohol cessation and medication compliance, advocacy with community leaders, local authorities and media. Hypothesis: The proposed program will demonstrate to be effective in the cessation of alcohol consumption in pregnant women.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The Return: Nightfall Chapter 36

Elena had been waiting in her tree. It wasn't, as a matter of fact, all that different from her six months in the spirit world, where she had spent most of her time watching other people, and waiting, and watching them some more. Those months had taught her a patient alertness that would have astounded anyone who knew the old, wildfire Elena. Of course, the old, wildfire Elena was still inside her, too, and occasionally it rebelled. As far as she could see, nothing was happening in the dark boardinghouse. Only the moon seemed to move, creeping slowly higher into the sky. Damon said this Shinichi had a thing about 4:44 in the morning or evening, she thought. Maybe this Black Magic was working to a different schedule than any she'd heard of. In any case, it was for Stefan. And as soon as she thought that she knew that she would wait here for days, if that's what it took. She could certainly wait until daybreak, when no self-respecting Black Magic-worker would ever thing of beginning a ceremony. And, in the end, what she was waiting for came to rest right below her feet. First came the figures, walking sedately out of the Old Wood and toward the gravel pathways of the boardinghouse. They weren't hard to identify, even at long range. One was Damon, who had aje ne sais quois about him that Elena couldn't miss at a quarter of a mile – and then again there was his aura, which was a very good facsimile of his old aura: that unreadable, un-breachable ball of black stone. Avery good imitation, in fact. Actually, it was almost exactly like the one†¦ It was then, Elena later realized, that she felt her very first qualm. But right now she was so caught up in the moment that she brushed the uneasy thought away. The one with the deep gray aura with crimson flashes would be Shinichi, she guessed. And the one with the same aura as the possessed girls: a sort of muddy color slashed with orange must be the twin sister Misao. Only those two, Shinichi and Misao, were holding hands, even occasionally nuzzling each other – as Elena could see as they came up close to the boardinghouse. They certainly weren't acting like any brother and sister that Elena had seen. Moreover, Damon was carrying a mostly-naked girl over his shoulder, and Elena couldn't imagine who that might be. Patience,she thought to herself.Patience. The major players are here at last, just as Damon promised they would be. And the minor players†¦ Well, first, following Damon and his group were three little girls. She recognized Tami Bryce instantly from her aura, but the other two were strangers. They hopped, skipped, andfrisked out of the Wood and to the boardinghouse, where Damon said something to them and they came around to sit in Mrs. Flowers' kitchen garden, almost directly below Elena. One look at the auras of the strange girls was enough to identify them as more of Misao's pets. Then, up the driveway came a very familiar car – it belonged to Caroline's mother. Caroline stepped out of it and was helped into the boardinghouse by Damon, who had done something – Elena had missed what – with his burden. Elena rejoiced as she saw lights coming on as Damon and his three guests traveled up the boardinghouse, lighting their way as they went. They came out on the very top, standing in a row on the widow's walk, looking down. Damon snapped his fingers, and the backyard lights went on as if it were a cue for a show. But Elena didn't see the actors – the victims of the ceremony that was about to begin, until just then. They were being herded around the far corner of the boardinghouse. She could see them all: Matt and Meredith and Bonnie, and Mrs. Flowers and, strangely, old Dr. Alpert. What Elena didn't understand was why they weren't fighting harder – Bonnie was certainly making enough noise for all of them, but they acted as if they were being pushed forward against their will. That was when she saw the looming darkness behind them. Huge dark shadows, with no features that she could identify. It was at that point that Elena realized, even over Bonnie's yelling, if she held herself still inside and focused hard enough, she could hear what everyone on the widow's walk was saying. And Misao's shrill voice cut through the rest. â€Å"Oh lucky! We got all of them back,† she squealed, and kissed her brother's cheek, despite his brief look of annoyance. â€Å"Of course we did. I said so,† he was beginning, when Misao squealed once more. â€Å"But which of them do we start with?† She kissed her brother and he stroked her hair, relenting. â€Å"You pick the first one,† he said. â€Å"You darling,† Misao cooed shamelessly. These two, Elena thought, are real charmers. Twins, huh? â€Å"The little noisy one,† Shinichi said firmly, pointing to Bonnie. â€Å"Urusei, brat! Shut up!† he added as Bonnie was pushed or carried forward by the shadows. Now Elena could see her more clearly. And she could hear Bonnie's heartrending pleas to Damon not to do this to†¦the others. â€Å"I'm not begging for myself,† she cried, as she was dragged into the light. â€Å"But Dr. Alpert is a good woman; she has nothing to do with this. Neither does Mrs. Flowers. And Meredith and Matt have already suffered enough.Please! â€Å" There was a ragged chorus of sound as the others apparently tried to fight and were subdued. But Matt's voice rose above it all. â€Å"You touch her, Salvatore, and you'd better make damn sure you kill me, too!† Elena's heart jerked as she heard Matt's voice sounding so strong and well. She'd found him at last, but she couldn't think of a way to save him. â€Å"And then we have to decide what to do with them to start with,† Misao said, clapping like a happy child at her birthday party. â€Å"Take your pick.† Shinichi caressed his sister's hair and whispered into her ear. She turned and kissed him on the mouth. Not hastily, either. â€Å"What the – what's going on?† Caroline said. She had never been shy, that one, Elena thought. Now she had moved forward to cling to Shinichi's unoccupied hand. For just an instant, Elena thought he would throw her off the widow's walk and watch her plunge to the ground. Then he turned, and he and Misao stared at each other. Then he laughed. â€Å"Sorry, sorry, it's so hard when you're the life of the party,† he said. â€Å"Well, what do you think, Carolyn – Caroline?† Caroline was staring at him. â€Å"Why's she holding you that way?† â€Å"In theShi no Shi , sisters are precious,† Shinichi said. â€Å"And†¦well, I haven't seen her in a long time. We're getting reacquainted.† But the kiss he planted on Misao's palm was hardly brotherly. â€Å"Go on,† he added quickly, to Caroline. â€Å"You choose the first act in the Moonspire Festival! What shall we do with her?† Caroline began to imitate Misao, kissing Shinichi's cheek and ear. â€Å"I'm new here,† she said flirtatiously. â€Å"I don't really know what you want me to pick.† â€Å"Silly Caroline. Naturally, how she di – † Shinichi was suddenly smothered by a great hug and kiss from his sister. Caroline, who had obviously wanted the attention of choice put to her, even if she didn't understand the subject, said huffily, â€Å"Well, if you don't tell me, I can't choose. And anyway, where's Elena? I don't see her anywhere!† She seemed about to say more when Damon glided over and whispered in her ear. Then she smiled again, and they both looked at the pine trees surrounding the boardinghouse. That was when Elena had her second qualm. But Misao was already speaking and that required Elena's full attention. â€Å"Lucky! Then I'll pick.† Misao leaned forward, peeking over the edge of the roof at the humans below, her dark eyes wide, summing up the possibilities in what looked like a barren clearing. She was so delicate, so graceful as she got up to pace and think; her skin was so fair, and her hair so glossy and dark that even Elena couldn't take her eyes off her. Then Misao's face lit up and she spoke. â€Å"Spread her on the altar. You brought some of your half-breeds?† The last was not so much a question as an excited exclamation. â€Å"My experiments? Of course, darling. I told you so,† Shinichi replied and added, staring into the forest, â€Å"Two of you – er, men – and Old Faithful!† And he snapped his fingers. There were several minutes of confusion during which the humans around Bonnie were struck, kicked, thrown to the ground, trampled on, and crushed as they fought with the shadows. And then the things that had shambled forward before, shambled farther forward with Bonnie held in between them, dangling limply from each by a slim arm. The half-breeds were something like men and something like trees with all the leaves stripped off them. If they had beenmade , it looked as if they had been made specifically to be grotesque and asymmetrical. One had a crooked, knobby left arm that reached almost to its feet, and a right arm that was thick, lumpy, and only waist-high. They were hideous. Their skin was similar to the chitin-like skin of the insects, but much bumpier, with knotholes and burls and all the outward aspects of bark on their branches. They had a shaggy, unfinished look in places. They were terrifying. The way their limbs were twisted; the way they walked, shambling forward like apes, the way their bodies ended on top with treelike caricatures of human faces, surmounted by a tangle of thinner branches sticking out at odd angles – they were calculated to look like creatures of nightmare. And they were naked. They had nothing in place of clothes to disguise the ghastly deformities of their bodies. And then Elena really knew what terror meant, as the two shambling malach carried the limp Bonnie to a sort of roughly hewn stump of tree like an altar, laid her on it and began to pluck at the many layers of her clothing, clumsily, pulling at them with sticklike fingers that broke off with little crackling sounds even as cloth tore. They didn't seem to care that they broke their fingers off – as long as they accomplished their task. And then they were using bits of torn cloth, even more clumsily, to tie Bonnie, spread-eagled, to four knobby posts snapped off their own bodies and hammered into the ground around the trunk with four powerful blows by the thick-armed one. Meanwhile, from somewhere even farther away in the shadows, a third man-tree shuffled forward. And Elena saw that this one was, undeniably, unmistakably male. For a moment Elena worried that Damon might lose it, go mad, turn around and attack both the were-foxes, revealing his true allegiance now. But his feelings about Bonnie had obviously changed since he had saved her at Caroline's. He appeared perfectly relaxed beside Shinichi and Misao, sitting back and smiling, even saying something that made them laugh. Suddenly something inside Elena seemed to plummet. This wasn't a qualm. It was full-blown terror. Damon had never looked so natural, so in tune, sohappy with anyone as he did here with Shinichi and Misao. They couldn't possibly have changed him, she tried to convince herself. Theycouldn't have possessed him again so quickly, not without her, Elena, knowing it†¦. But when you showed him the truth, he was miserable, her heart whispered. Desperately miserable – miserably desperate. He might have reached for possession as a defiant alcoholic reaches for a bottle, wanting only forgetfulness. If she knew Damon, he had willingly invited the darkness back in. He couldn't stand to stand in the light, she thought. And so now, he's able to laugh even at Bonnie's suffering. And where did that leave her? With Damon defected to the other side, no longer ally, but enemy? Elena began to tremble with anger and hatred – yes, and fear, too, as she contemplated her position. All alone to struggle against three of the strongest enemies she could imagine, and their army of deformed, conscienceless killers? Not to mention Caroline, the cheerleader of spite? As if to corroborate her fears, as if to show her how slim her chances really were, the tree she was clinging to seemed suddenly to let go of her, and for a moment Elena thought she would fall, spinning and screaming, all the way to the ground. Her handholds and footholds seemed to disappear all at once, and she only saved herself by a frantic – and painful – scrambling through serrated pine needles up to the grooved, dark bark. You are a human girl now, my dear,the strong, resinous smell seemed to be telling her.And you are up to your neck in the Powers of the undead and of sorcery. Why fight it? You've lost before you've begun. Give in now and it won't hurt so much. If aperson had been telling her this, trying to hammer it in, the words might have sparked some kind of defiance from the flint of Elena's character. But instead this was just a feeling that came over her, an aura of doom, a knowledge of the hopelessness of her cause, and the inadequacy of her weapons, that seemed to settle over her as gently and as inescapably as a fog. She leaned her throbbing head against the trunk of the tree. She had never felt so weak, so helpless – or so alone, not since she had been a newly wakened vampire. She wanted Stefan. But Stefan hadn't been able to beat these three, and because of that she might never see him again. Something new was happening on the roof, she realized wearily. Damon was looking down at Bonnie on the altar, and his expression was petulant. Bonnie's white face was staring up at the evening sky in determination, as if refusing any longer to weep or beg again. â€Å"But†¦are all thehors d'oeuvres so predictable?† Damon asked, seeming genuinely bored. You bastard, you'd turn on your best friend for amusement, Elena thought. Well, just you wait. But she knew the truth was that without him, she couldn't even put together Plan A, much less fight against these kitsune, these were-foxes. â€Å"You told me that in theShi no Shi , I would see acts of genuine originality,† Damon was going on. â€Å"Maidens hypnotized to cut themselves†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Elena ignored his words. She concentrated all her energy on the thudding pain in the center of her chest. She felt as if she were drawing blood from her tiniest capillaries, from the far reaches of her body, and collecting it here at her center. The human mind is infinite, she thought. It is as strange and as infinite as the universe. And the human soul†¦ The three youngest of the possessed began dancing around the spread-eagled Bonnie, singing in falsely sweet little-girl voices: â€Å"You are going todie in here, When you die inhere , outthere They throwdirt right on your face!† How delightful, Elena thought. Then she tuned back in to the drama unfolding on the roof. What she saw startled her. Meredith was now up on the widow's walk, moving as if she were underwater – entranced. Elena had missed how she'd gotten there – was it by some sort of magic? Misao was facing Meredith, giggling. Damon was laughing, too, but in mocking disbelief. â€Å"And you expect me to believe that if I givethis girl a pair of scissors†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he said, â€Å"she would actually cut her own – â€Å" â€Å"Try and see for yourself,† Shinichi interrupted, with one of his languid gestures. He was leaning against the cupola in the middle of the widow's walk, still trying to out-lounge Damon. â€Å"Didn't you see our prizewinner, Isobel?You carried her all the way here – didn't she ever try to speak?† Damon held out a hand. â€Å"Scissors,† he said, and a dainty pair of nail scissors rested in his palm. It seemed that, as long as Damon had Shinichi's magic key, the magic field around them would continue to obey him even in the real world. He laughed. â€Å"No, adult-size scissors, for gardening. The tongue's made of strong muscles, not paper.† What he held in his hand then were large pruning shears – definitely not toys for children. He hefted them, feeling their weight. And then, to Elena's utter shock, he looked straight up at her in her treetop refuge, not needing to search for her there at all – and winked. Elena could only stare back in horror. He knew, she thought. He knew where I was all the time. That was what he had been whispering to Caroline about. It hadn't worked – theWings of Redemption hadn't worked, Elena thought, and it felt as if she were falling and would fall forever. I should have realized it would be no good. No matter what's done to him, Damon will always be Damon. And now he's offering me a choice: see my two best friends tortured and killed, or step forward and stop this horror by agreeing to his terms. What could she do? He had arranged the chess pieces brilliantly, she thought. The pawns on two different levels, so that even if Elena could somehow climb down to try to save Bonnie, Meredith would be lost. Bonnie was tied to four strong posts and guarded by Tree-Men. Meredith was closer, up on the roof, but to get her off Elena would have toget to her and then through Misao, Shinichi, Caroline, and Damon himself. And Elena had to choose. Whether to step forward now, or be pushed forward by the anguish of one of the two who were almost a part of her. She seemed to catch a faint strain of telepathy as Damon stood beaming there, and it said,This is the best night of my life. You could always just jump,came the fog-like hypnotic whisper of annihilation once again.End the dead-end road you're on. End your suffering. End all the pain†¦just like that. â€Å"Now it's my turn,† Caroline was saying, brushing past the twins to face Meredith herself. â€Å"It was supposed to be my choice in the first place. So it's my turn now.† Misao was laughing hysterically, but Meredith was already stepping forward, still in a trance. â€Å"Oh, have it your own way,† Damon said. But he didn't move, still staring curiously, as Caroline said to Meredith, â€Å"You've always had a tongue like an adder's. Why don't you make it forked for us – right here, right now? Before you cut it into pieces.† Meredith held out her hand without a word, like an automaton. Still with her eyes on Damon, Elena breathed in slowly. Her chest seemed to be going into spasms as it had when the sucker plants had wound their way around her and cut off her breath. But not even sensations in her own body could stop her. How could I choose? she thought. Bonnie and Meredith – I love both of them. And there's nothing else to do, she realized numbly, the feeling draining from her hands and her lips. I'm not even sure if Damon can save both of them, even if I agree to†¦submit to him. These others – Shinichi, Misao, even Caroline – they want to see blood. And Shinichi not only controls trees, but just about everything in the Old Wood, including those monstrous Tree-Men. Maybe this time Damon has over-reached himself, taken on more than he could handle. He wanted me – but he went too far to get me. I can't see any way out. And then she did see. Suddenly everything fell into place and was brilliantly clear. Sheknew . Elena stared down at Bonnie, almost in a state of shock. Bonnie was looking at her, too. But there was no expectation of rescue in that small, triangular face. Bonnie had already accepted her fate: agony and death. No,Elena thought, not knowing whether Bonnie could hear her. Believe,she thought to Bonnie. Not blindly, never blindly. But believe in what your mind tells you is the truth, and what your heart tells you is the right path. I would never let you go – or Meredith either. I believe,Elena thought, and her soul was rocked by the force of it. She felt a sudden surge within herself, and she knew that it was time to go. One word was ringing in her mind as she stood and let go of her handholds on the tree trunk. And that one word echoed in her mind as she dove headfirst from her sixty-foot perch in the tree. Believe.

Monday, January 6, 2020

States and Their Dates of Admission to the Union

The thirteen original colonies in North America could officially be admitted to the United States after the U.S. Constitution was written and signed by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention, on Sep. 17, 1787. Article IV, Section 3 of that document reads: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. The main part of this article grants the U.S. Congress the right to admit new states. The process usually involves Congress passing an enabling act that authorizes a territory to convene a constitutional convention, draft a constitution, and formally apply for admission. Then, assuming they meet any conditions set forward in the enabling act, Congress accepts or denies their new status.   Between Dec. 7, 1787, and May 29, 1790, each of the colonies became states. Since that time, 37 additional states have been added. Not all states were territories before they became states, however. Three of the new states were independent sovereign states at the time they were admitted (Vermont, Texas, and California), and three were carved out of existing states (Kentucky, part of Virginia; Maine part of Massachusetts; West Virginia out of Virginia). Hawaii was a sovereign state between 1894 and 1898 before it became a territory.   Five states were added during the 20th century. The last states to be added to the US were Alaska and Hawaii in 1959. The following table lists each state with the date it entered the union, and its status before they were states. States and Their Dates of Admission to the Union State Status Before Statehood Date Admitted to the Union 1 Delaware Colony Dec. 7, 1787 2 Pennsylvania Colony Dec. 12, 1787 3 New Jersey Colony Dec. 18, 1787 4 Georgia Colony Jan. 2, 1788 5 Connecticut Colony Jan. 9, 1788 6 Massachusetts Colony Feb. 6, 1788 7 Maryland Colony April 28, 1788 8 South Carolina Colony May 23, 1788 9 New Hampshire Colony June 21, 1788 10 Virginia Colony June 25, 1788 11 New York Colony July 26, 1788 12 North Carolina Colony Nov. 21, 1789 13 Rhode Island Colony May 29, 1790 14 Vermont Independent republic, established January 1777 March 4, 1791 15 Kentucky Part of Virginia state June 1,1792 16 Tennessee Territory establishedMay 26, 1790 June 1, 1796 17 Ohio Territory established July 13, 1787 March 1, 1803 18 Louisiana Territory, established July 4, 805 April 30, 1812 19 Indiana Territory established July 4, 1800 Dec.11, 1816 20 Mississippi Territory established April 7, 1798 Dec.10, 1817 21 Illinois Territory established March 1, 1809 Dec.3, 1818 22 Alabama Territory established March 3, 1817 Dec.14, 1819 23 Maine Part of Massachusetts March 15, 1820 24 Missouri Territory established June 4, 1812 Aug. 10, 1821 25 Arkansas Territory established March 2, 1819 June 15, 1836 26 Michigan Territory established June 30, 1805 Jan. 26, 1837 27 Florida Territory established March 30, 1822 March 3, 1845 28 Texas Independent republic, March 2, 1836 Dec.29, 1845 29 Iowa Territory established July 4, 1838 Dec.28, 1846 30 Wisconsin Territory established July 3, 1836 May 26, 1848 31 California Independent republic, June 14, 1846 Sept. 9, 1850 32 Minnesota Territory established March 3, 1849 May 11, 1858 33 Oregon Territory established Aug. 14, 1848 Feb. 14, 1859 34 Kansas Territory established May 30, 1854 Jan. 29, 1861 35 West Virginia Part of Virginia June 20, 1863 36 Nevada Territory established March 2, 1861 October 31, 1864 37 Nebraska Territory established May 30, 1854 March 1, 1867 38 Colorado Territory established Feb. 28, 1861 Aug. 1, 1876 39 North DakotaTT Territory established March 2, 1861 Nov. 2, 1889 40 South Dakota Territory established March 2, 1861 Nov. 2, 1889 41 Montana Territory established May 26, 1864 Nov. 8, 1889 42 Washington Territory established March 2, 1853 Nov. 11, 1889 43 Idaho Territory established March 3, 1863 July 3, 1890 44 Wyoming Territory established July 25, 1868 July 10, 1890 45 Utah Territory established Sep. 9, 1850 Jan. 4, 1896 46 Oklahoma Territory established May 2, 1890 Nov. 16, 1907 47 New Mexico Territory established Sep. 9, 1950 Jan. 6, 1912 48 Arizona Territory established Feb. 24, 1863 Feb. 14, 1912 49 Alaska Territory established Aug. 24, 1912 Jan. 3, 1959 50 Hawaii Territory established Aug. 12, 1898 Aug. 21, 1959 U.S. Territories There are currently 16 territories owned by the United States, mostly islands in the Pacific ocean or Caribbean Sea, most of which are uninhabited and administered as wildlife refuges by the US Fish and Wildlife Services or as military outposts. United States territories with inhabitants include American Samoa (established 1900), Guam (1898), the 24 Northern Marianas islands (today a commonwealth, established 1944), Puerto Rico (a commonwealth, 1917), U.S. Virgin Islands (1917), and Wake Island (1899). Sources and Further Reading Biber, Eric, and Thomas B. Colby. The Admissions Clause. National Constitution Center.Immerwahr, Daniel. How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2019.  Lawson, Gary, and Guy Seidman. The Constitution of Empire: Territorial Expansion and American Legal History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.  Mack, Doug. The Not-Quite States of America: Dispatches from the Territories and Other Far-Flung Outposts of the USA. W. W. Norton, 2017.The last time Congress created a new state. Constitution Daily. The National Constitution Center, March 12, 2019.